Anti-Federalist Papers

The Anti-Federalist Papers is a collection of articles that were written in opposition to the Federalist Papers and the ratification of the United States Constitution of 1787.

The Federalist Papers were written to explain and support the Constitution.The Anti-Federalist Papers were written under “pen names” … Cato (presumed to be George
), Brutus (presumed to be Robert Yates), Centinel (Samuel Bryan), and Federal Farmer (either Melancton Smith, Richard Henry Lee, or Mercy
Otis Warren
). Speeches made by Patrick Henry and Melancton Smith are also included in the collection of anti-Federalist papers.Morton Borden collected 85 of the most significant papers and arranged them in order closely resembling the Federalist Papers, so that a numbered paper of the Federalist corresponded to the same
number in the anti-Federalist papers, which was used to produce The Complete Anti-Federalist was produced in modern times by Herbert Storing and who is considered an authority on the publications. The collection is in seven volumes.The arguments were, for example, against certain aspects of the ratified Constitution like the
position of the President of the United States becoming a potential monarchy; which would replace the original individual freedom that had been granted by the Articles
of Confederation
. Of course, the first President of the United States, George Washington could have very easily become a president for the rest of his life, but he would not have it.The Anti-Federalists were the ones who demanded and were promised a Bill of Rights, which before those first ten amendments the Constitution primarily was concerned with limited powers of government and the rules of election, et cetera. Therefore the ratification of the 1787 constitution occurred in 1789 with the addition of those first ten amendments that have come to be known as the Bill of Rights because James Madison and Thomas Jefferson had seen the purpose and its importance.
The Complete Anti-Federalist was begun in 1963 and after the original pamphlets were collected from various sources, newspaper essays, and important speeches by Anti-Federalists, it was published in 1981 by the University of Chicago press and an abridged edition published in 1985.

In studying as to how and why the Constitution of the United States was drafted and finalized to what it is today, it is important to read the Federalist Papers; just as
important is to read the arguments against aspects of that very same Constitution within the Anti-Federalist Papers. It provides an overall scope and understanding of the Constitution and its importance. Just because the anti-Federalists were skeptical of certain aspects of the Constitution of the United States does not jeopardize their loyalty to the new nation or make those founders of the new nation of any less importance than the well-known and wise leadership that most today are aware of. The creation of the
Constitution of the United States and its amendments was a long process, and viewing the importance of those documents, it can be understood why it took so long for its ratification and agreement among the representatives of each colony that had become a state of the unification of states. And, of course, by being representatives
of their particular states, they wanted assurance of that states rights, then and in the future, as well as a system of government that didn’t end up reverting to monarchy or tyranny.

I find arguments like those presented in Anti-Federalist No. 35 interesting. Anti-Federalist No. 14 shows what happened to our property rights today. Anti-Federalist No. 24 & Anti-Federalist 25 provides the an argument against a standing army. Switzerland has a citizen army for defense and a limited standing army not used as a global military police force. Anti-Federalist No. 35 warns of allowing federal taxation without restraint. Also take notice of Anti-Federalist No. 74.
Just as there are 85 essays in the Federalist Papers, so there are 85 essays in the Anti-Federalist Papers.

Anti-federalist No. 1: General Introduction: A Dangerous Plan of Benefit Only to The “Aristocratick Combination.”

Anti-federalist No. 2: We Have Been Told of Phantoms.
Anti-federalist No. 3: New Constitution Creates a National Government; Will Not Abate Foreign Influence; Dangers of Civil War And Despotism.
Anti-federalist No. 4: Foreign Wars, Civil Wars, and Indian Wars — Three Bugbears.
Anti-federalist No. 5: Scotland and England — A Case in Point.
Anti-federalist No. 6: The Hobgoblins of Anarchy And Dissensions Among The States.
Anti-federalist No. 7: Adoption of The Constitution Will Lead to Civil War.
Anti-federalist No. 8: The Power Vested in Congress of Sending Troops For Suppressing Insurrections Will Always Enable Them to Stifle The First Struggles of Freedom.
Anti-federalist No. 9: A Consolidated Government Is a Tyranny.
Anti-federalist No. 10: On The Preservation of Parties, Public Liberty Depends.
Anti-federalist No. 11: Unrestricted Power Over Commerce Should Not Be Given The National Government.
Anti-federalist No. 12: How Will The New Government Raise Money?
Anti-federalist No. 13: The Expense of The New Government.
Anti-federalist No. 14: Extent of Territory Under Consolidated Government Too Large to Preserve Liberty or Protect Property.
Anti-federalist No. 15: Rhode Island Is Right!
Anti-federalist No. 16: Europeans Admire And Federalists Decry The Present System.
Anti-federalist No. 17: Federalist Power Will Ultimately Subvert State Authority.
Anti-federalist No. 18-20: What Does History Teach? (Part I) What Does History Teach? (Part II)
Anti-federalist No. 21: Why The Articles Failed.
Anti-federalist No. 22: Articles of Confederation Simply Requires Amendments, Particularly For Commercial Power And Judicial Power; Constitution Goes Too Far.
Anti-federalist No. 23: Certain Powers Necessary For The Common Defense, Can And Should Be Limited.
Anti-federalist No. 24: Objections to a Standing Army. (Part I)
Anti-federalist No. 25: Objections to a Standing Army. (Part II)
Anti-federalist No. 26: The Use of Coercion by The New Government. (Part 1)
Anti-federalist No. 27: The Use of Coercion by The New Government. (Part 2)
Anti-federalist No. 28: The Use of Coercion by The New Government. (Part 3)
Anti-federalist No. 29: Objections to National Control of the Militia.
Anti-federalist No. 30-31: A Virginia Anti-federalist on the Issue of Taxation.
Anti-federalist No. 32: Federal Taxation and the Doctrine of Implied Powers. (Part I)
Anti-federalist No. 33: Federal Taxation and the Doctrine of Implied Powers. (Part II)
Anti-federalist No. 34: The Problem of Concurrent Taxation.
Anti-federalist No. 35: Federal Taxing Power must Be Restrained.
Anti-federalist No. 36: Representation and Internal Taxation.
Anti-federalist No. 37: Factions and the Constitution.
Anti-federalist No. 38: Some Reactions to Federalist Arguments.
Anti-federalist No. 39: Appearance and Reality– the Form Is Federal; the Effect Is National.
Anti-federalist No. 40: On the Motivations and Authority of the Founding Fathers.
Anti-federalist No. 41-43: The Quantity of Power The Union Must Possess Is One Thing; The Mode of Exercising The Powers Given Is Quite a Different Consideration. (Part I) Anti-federalist No. 41-43: The Quantity of Power the Union must Possess Is One Thing; the Mode of Exercising the Powers Given Is Quite a Different Consideration. (Part II) Anti-federalist No. 44: What Congress Can Do; What a State Can Not.
Anti-federalist No. 45: Powers of National Government Dangerous to State Governments; New York as an Example.
Anti-federalist No. 46: Where Then Is the Restraint?
Anti-federalist No. 47: “Balance” of Departments Not Achieved under New Constitution.
Anti-federalist No. 48: No Separation of Departments Results in No Responsibility.
Anti-federalist No. 49: On Constitutional Conventions. (Part I)
Anti-federalist No. 50: On Constitutional Conventions. (Part 2)
Anti-federalist No. 51: Do Checks and Balances Really Secure the Rights of the People?
Anti-federalist No. 52: On the Guarantee of Congressional Biennial Elections.
Anti-federalist No. 53: A Plea for the Right of Recall.
Anti-federalist No. 54: Apportionment And Slavery: Northern And Southern Views.
Anti-federalist No. 55: Will the House of Representatives Be GenuinelyRepresentative? (Part 1)
Anti-federalist No. 56: Will the House of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part 2)
Anti-federalist No. 57: Will the House of Representatives Be Genuinely Representative? (Part 3)
Anti-federalist No. 58: Will the House of Representatives Be GenuinelyRepresentative? (Part 4)
Anti-federalist No. 59: The Danger of Congressional Control of Elections.
Anti-federalist No. 60: Will the Constitution Promote the Interests of Favorite Classes?
Anti-federalist No. 61: Questions and Comments on the Constitutional Provisions Regarding the Election of Congressmen.
Anti-federalist No. 62: On the Organization and Powers of the Senate. (Part 1)
Anti-federalist No. 63: On the Organization and Powers of the Senate. (Part 2)
Anti-federalist No. 64: On the Organization and Powers of the Senate. (Part 3)
Anti-federalist No. 65: On the Organization and Powers of the Senate. (Part 4)
Anti-federalist No. 66: On The Power of Impeachment
Anti-federalist No. 67: Various Fears Concerning the Executive Department.
Anti-federalist No. 68: On the Mode of Electing the President.
Anti-federalist No. 69: The Character of the Executive Office.
Anti-federalist No. 70: The Powers and Dangerous Potentials of His Elected Majesty.
Anti-federalist No. 71: The Presidential Term of Office.
Anti-federalist No. 72: On The Electoral College; on Re-eligibility of the President.
Anti-federalist No. 73: Does the Presidential Veto Power Infringe on the Separation of Departments?
Anti-federalist No. 74: The President as Military King.
Anti-federalist No. 75: A Note Protesting the Treaty-making Provisions of the Constitution.
Anti-federalist Nos. 76-77: An Anti-federalist View of the Appointing Power under the Constitution.
Anti-federalist Nos. 78-79: The Power of the Judiciary. (Part 1)
Anti-federalist No. 80: The Power of the Judiciary. (Part 2)
Anti-federalist No. 81: The Power of the Judiciary. (Part 3)
Anti-federalist No. 82: The Power of the Judiciary. (Part 4)
Anti-federalist No. 83: The Federal Judiciary and the Issue of Trial by Jury.
Anti-federalist No. 84: On the Lack of a Bill of Rights.
Anti-federalist No. 85: Concluding Remarks: Evils under Confederation Exaggerated; Constitution must Be Drastically Revised Before Adoption.